Leftovers in Bank Station

If you’re walking between the DLR and the Waterloo and City Line platforms at Bank Underground Station, at one point you’ll come across something that was left behind in 1898 and found 100 years later.

What could it be? A tool, some graffiti? Well, it’s this:

Greathead Tunnelling Shield at Bank Station

That red ring going around the tunnel is part of a ‘Greathead’ Tunnelling Shield, which was used in the construction of the Waterloo and City Line in the 1890s. It protected the construction workers by supporting the tunnel they were excavating. They would work in the shield, digging away the soil by hand. When they dug far enough, the shield was moved forward and the tunnel lined with metal plates.

The name Greathead comes from James Henry Greathead, who devised the shield building upon previous designs by Sir Marc Brunel and Peter W. Barlow. Brunel’s design, the first of its kind, was rectangular in shape. Barlow changed this to be round. The round shape was better at keeping the surrounding soil at bay, as the pressure was distributed all around the shield, rather than just the top and bottom as would be the case with Brunel’s shield.

When the Waterloo and City Line was completed in 1898, the tunnelling shield was left behind. It was found in 1987 during excavation work for the Bank extension of the Docklands Light Railway and later integrated into the foot tunnel when the DLR opened.

Greathead Tunnelling Shield at Bank Station

James Henry Greathead is commemorated in statue form outside Bank station.  Just along the south side of the Royal Exchange in Cornhill is a statue of Greathead, be-hatted and looking down at a set of plans.  Apparently the plinth the statue is on is hollow and acts as a ventilation shaft for the Underground.  Also on the plinth, you can see an engraving of a tunnelling shield in use.

The same general idea of a tunnelling shield is still in use today. The tunnel boring machines making their way across London, carving out the tunnels for Crossrail operate on the same principal.

The Lesser Seen Parts of St. Paul’s Cathedral

Not a lot a of people know this, but if you book ahead you can go on a tour of the St. Paul’s Cathedral Triforium. What is the triforium? Well it isn’t anything in particular; just the out of sight parts of the cathedral like the library and where they keep ‘spare parts’ like pervious pulpits.

One of my colleagues on the City Guides course was kind enough to put together a couple of bookings for us to take a field trip as it were. You usually have to pay for the tour, but the cathedral was feeling generous and said they would let us in for free, nice one!

We got there at 2pm last Friday and met our guide, Chris. He said that the tour usually lasts about 45 minutes, but he was at our group’s disposal for the afternoon and would show us anything we wanted. We all grinned.

Up we went the first set of steps that lead up to the whispering gallery, but stopped just short of it and went off into a little door. This brought us into a small room where we could just about see into the whispering gallery:

Peeking up to the Whispering Gallery

From here we moved into a long corridor where we could see a couple of the buttresses of the cathedral. Structurally important, but completely out of public view. A. W. N. Pugin would have hated it.

Buttresses on the left

Along this space there were various prints of the cathedral printed during various stages of the building work. This one is the first ever official print of it, and you can see it was far from what the finished product looked like, especially the dome and the towers:

The first official print of the Cathedral

Further along were bits of stone work from the early Romanesque cathedral, and the better known, later medieval cathedral. They are labelled up as ‘Norman’ and ‘Gothic’ respectively. Though the medieval cathedral was badly damaged in the Great Fire of 1666 it was still standing when Wren started his work on the present one. The old structure was torn down and some of it used as filler for the new cathedral.

Stones from the Medieval Cathedral

Next stop was the library, which is housed in south transept (the cross bit of the cathedral). It mostly focusses on works about St.Paul’s and any books published by people related to it such as the deans. When we popped in there were two people in doing some research, one on the history of the organs (the musical variety rather than the medical kind) and another doing some research I can’t recall. We had a nice little blurb from the librarian about the space as well.

Bust of Wren, St. Paul's Library

We did a little detour to have a look at the Geometric Staircase. This is featured in Harry Potter: Prisoner of Azkaban, but it’s not this exact one. The cathedral wouldn’t allow the crew to film here but did let them take lots of photos to recreate the staircase on set. It was also used in one of my favourite films, The Madness of King George.

The Geometric Staircase

The steps look like they are driven into the wall to be held up, but that’s not the case. They are holding each other up. The top on step rests on a small niche in the one below it, all the way down to the 88th step.

Originally, Wren and his buddy in all things scientific, Robert Hooke, where going to use this space as a telescope. Anyone familiar with the Monument will know they did the same there. Unfortunately they never got around to getting the lens installed into the top of the staircase and it was never used for gazing at the stars.

The Geometric Staircase

Crossing over from the south side of the building to the north was great. In involved this view of the nave:

Looking down on the nave

One of our colleagues isn’t so great with heights, so she rushed past. But the rest of us probably could have spent an age here. We were directly behind the great west window as well and could look out onto Ludgate Hill and Fleet Street.

The west window

To give you an idea where we were, that box is where the Christmas tree is each year:

The Christmas tree goes where that box is

We went around to the north transept, a mirror of where we were for the library. This is where the trophy room is, and the trophy room is where The Great Model is kept. It was what we were all waiting for, the show piece of the tour:

The Great Model

This is the oak model Sir Christopher Wren had built in 1673 of his first design for St. Paul’s Cathedral. It cost him a cool £500. The idea was that it would be big enough that when he showed it to King Charles II, the king could walk into the model (it being up on a plinth a bit higher than this one) and actually see from the inside how the new cathedral would be laid out. Of course this design was turned down and Wren would have to go somewhat back to the drawing board. Once he did get a design ok’d by the crown and the government he was given permission to alter it as he saw fit. Jackpot. He got the foundation and the walls built up to the design of his liking. By that point, it would have been too expensive to get him to start over again and so Wren made St. Paul’s Cathedral as he wished.

The Great Model

To give it some scale, here’s me beside the Great Model:

365-52 The Great Model - it's bigger than me.

Shame that we couldn’t get inside it. Ah well, can’t win them all. At that point, it was the end of the official tour. Our guide said if we wanted though we could go have a look at the choir and the crypt. And so we merrily did. We got to sit in the seats of the choir and here all about the changing decor of it, how it was fairly light in the early days. The Victorians thought it drab and Victorianised it. After damage to the choir in WW2, the rebuilding work was a bit more toned down and is what we see today.

We also learned that the organs dotted around the cathedral are controlled by pneumatic pipes. This allows more than one organ to be used, and the keyboard console controlling them to be moved about. When we were crossing the top of the nave we could see one such organ that was installed in 1977 for the Queen’s Silver Jubilee. Apparently this one is super loud and Her Majesty had actually asked for the volume of it to be lowered. To be on the safe side, they simply don’t use it when she’s in the cathedral. Fair play.

We then went down to the crypt and had a look at Wren and his family, and of course Nelson and Wellington. Something that I proudly already knew was that Nelson’s sarcophogus that is atop his monument was originally intended for Cardinal Wolsley way back in the 16th century. It was acquired by Henry VIII when he took posession of the Cardinals goods and it was moved to Windsor to be put in storage. There it stayed until 1805 when something was needed for Nelson. What luck we had this knocking about Windsor Castle completely un-used.

Something I didn’t know that was that during the funeral service, Nelson’s coffin was set upon a platform which made it look like it was on the floor of the cathedral (right under the center of the dome). At the end of the service, the platform was cranked down, and with it Nelson’s coffin seemingly sank into the floor, down into the crypt. Nobody was expecting that and it was quite the spectacle.

At this point the cathedral was closing and we were being reminded we had to get out. We thanked our guide profusely. What was meant to be a 45 minute tour, turned into about 3 hours of top notch guiding. You may not get that when you book, but still take a look at going on a Triforium Tour. It’s worth it.

For more photos, head on over to my Flickr page.

Hooked in Great Newport Street

I was having a poke around the internet last week for interesting bits around Covent Garden. One that caught my eye was the police hook in Great Newport Street. Mainly as it is around the corner from where I work three days out of the week. I know I’ve walked by it countless times and never even saw it.

What the heck is a police hook? It’s this thing:

Police Hook, Covent Garden

Any guesses at what it was used for? The junction of Great Newport Street, Upper St. Martin’s Lane, Long Acre, Garrick Street, Cranbourne Street and St. Martin’s Lane is, needless to say, a busy one and used to be manned by a member of the Metropolitan Police to direct the traffic. This hook was here for them to hang up their coats and capes while on traffic duty. Neat huh!

Here it is in situ on the building that used to be the Photographer’s Gallery:

Police Hook, Covent Garden

Does anyone know of any other police hooks around the capital?

144 Years Old, Still Younger Than The Underground

Lordy, lordy look who is 144. It’s my home country of Canada. When talking about Canada and how old it is to people in the UK, I usually mention that the Underground is three years older than Canada as a proper country. The Metropolitan Line was open for business on January the 10th, 1863. The British North America Act was signed in Westminster Palace on July the 1st, 1867. This usually puts things into perspective. Canada is still a very young country… and can’t hold a candle to the history of London ;-)

This year I thought it would be neat to go around London and capture some of the places where Canada pops up. I’m sure I’ve missed some but I got a pretty good batch.

The entire Canada Water area is pretty good for this. The area is named after the Canada Water lake. There was also a Canada Dock, you know back when there were actual docks in the area.

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Canada Water Underground station on the Jubilee line.

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Walking outside the station you get hit with a lot of Canada-ness. And construction.

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Catching a bus near Canada Street

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Moving along from Canada Water we have the Docklands. Specifically the area around Canada Square. The story behind the naming of the area isn’t all that interesting. It’s because the original developers of the area, Olympia and York, are owned by a rich Torontonian family.

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One Canada Square used to be the tallest building in the UK until the Shard came to town further west along the Thames.

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One Canada Square from the inside. Can’t say I’m a fan of the decor.

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And One Canada Square from the outside, looking up.

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Entering One Canada Square from Cabot Place / Canary Wharf DLR station. I don’t get as properly lost in around here as I used to, but it’s still a bit confusing.

Off now to Covent Garden, where I don’t get as lost. Streets need to be at least 100 years old it seems for me to properly navigate them.

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It’s the Canada (and other Commonwealth Countries) Shop! It’s where I get my Kraft Dinner, ketchup chips and Coffee Crisps. They have a window display at the moment for all things Canada. Well, all things they have in stock. I’ve cleared out the ketchup chips.

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A short walk up Maiden Lane from the Canada Shop is the Maple Leaf Pub. I went here for the first time a few weeks ago and had a ridiculously large plate of potato wedges. They were very good. They had bacon on them. And chicken. However, I think I need to take issue with them not serving Canada Dry gingerale or chicken fingers.

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Last stop is the at the moment empty Canadian high commission, Canada House, next to Trafalgar Square. All the flags have been down and the place locked up for a few months now while they renovate the place.

Let’s take a moment to hark back to March last year when there was a bit of a flag gaff at Maison du Canada…
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Two New Brunswicks. No P.E.I.. Bizzarro World.

Now if you’ll excuse me, I need to queue up for a Tim’s doughnut and curly fries at the Canada Day in London do.

A Jaunt Around 1066 Country

Despite me having very little interest in owning a a car again, they can be handy to have sometimes. Thankfully I have a very good friend with a car. We packed up last Monday and headed south for the bank holiday to have a look around Hastings, Battle abbey and battleground and Bodiam Castle.

We got into Hastings just in time for the cafes to start opening for breakfast. Once one that did ‘American Pancakes’ was spotted we were sold. It was amazing. Proper pancakes, maple syrup and bacon. You better believe I put syrup on that bacon as well.

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After breakfast we took a stroll around the town and water front. We went up the funicular railway to the top of castle hill where there unfortunately isn’t much of a castle left.

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Into the funicular railway tunnel.

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Looking to the East Hill.

The original plan was to take the East Hill railway back down, but instead we ended up meandering down the hill and stumbling upon a bakery churning out amazing brownies and the biggest collection of ramshackle antique shops I’ve seen this side of the Atlantic. I lost it a bit upon seeing a bin of boxed Atari games, an Atari 800 computer and a NES. I opened the cartridge door on the NES, saw Super Mario Bros. and smiled.

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As if this wasn't enough...

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...there was more when you got outside.

After much deliberation over picking up a chaise lounge or not, we made our way back to the car and set out for Battle.

There was a medieval fair going on at Battle Abbey on the day as well. It just turned out to be a bit of a market infront of the abbey with vendors in fancy dress. Ah well. I was suprised at how close the abbey was to the high street. It’s actually on the high street.

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Like most religious houses, it was stripped of all decoration and given to one of Henry VIII’s mates as a house. Now what buildings that are left intact are part of Battle Abbey School.  The high alter of the abbey was placed supposedly where King Harold fell during the battle. There is now a plaque there to mark the spot.

Battle Abbey

Battle Abbey

There’s a walking path around the battlefield as well. There’s a short one that just skirts it, but the long path isn’t really all that long. It takes in some nice scenery though woods and a lilly pond.  It was hard to walk through it and not picture all the carnage that happened there a nearly a thousand years ago. You really have to hand it to the English though; they put up a good fight despite having spent the previous several weeks marching to, from and engaging in battles.

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By this point we were feeling a bit beat, but decided to press on to Bodiam castle even if it was just to walk around the outside. It was well worth it.

When castles are pictured in fairy tales and the like, this is the sort of place that is described; square, towers and a moat. It was built in 1385 by permission of Richard II to defend the area against the French during the 100 Years War. During the English Civil war the owner of the castle at the time, a Royalist, had to sell it off to pay fees brought against him by Parliament.  The castle was stripped and left to ruin.  Since then it has belonged to several different aristocrat types until donated to the National Trust in 1925.

Bodiam Castle

Bodiam Castle

There were some activities happening around Bodiam as well for the bank holiday and one of them was have-a-go archery. Now usually this is just for kids and I get all excited for nothing. However this setup was for kids and adults, score! I had my first try at archery. I hit the target once and had slightly sore fingers but liked it so much that I’ve signed myself up to a intro lesson next Saturday morning. It won’t be ye olde wooden long bows like at Bodiam but should still be fun, hopefully.

Oh and on our way back to London we were behind this thing while in a mini-traffic jam.

Floreda
A-meri-caaa.

Loads more photos are over on Flickr.

The Church vs. The Tower

I was having a look around on the internets today for any events of interest coming up and spotted something for this very evening. All Hallows by the Tower, the church by the Tower of London, was having its triennial ‘Battle with the Tower of London’. This is an extension of Beating the Bounds that happened earlier.  It’s a rather old tradition where young and old folk walk the boundaries of each parish. Partly for ceremony and partly so everyone know just where the boundaries were.

Here’s a blurb from ianvisits.com on this evening’s ceremony:

The ceremony involves a ‘confrontation’ with the Resident Governor and Yeomen Warders of HM Tower of London at the boundary mark shared by the Tower and the Church.

During the middle ages the boundary was always in dispute, and this meeting commemorates an occasion in 1698 when a riot took place between the people of the Tower and those of the parish.

I was a little bit late getting there as I though it started at 7pm when it was actually 6:30pm. Still I don’t think I missed too much.

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Some kids on the side of the church.

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And here comes the procession from the Tower.

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Yeomen Warders

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Hats off!

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And they’re off to walk the parish boundary.

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I didn’t know the route and ended up meeting the procession whilst walking down the approach to Tower Bridge.

Want to see more photos? Of course you do! They’re over on Flickr.

Cathedral Checklist: Rochester

Ages ago I made a list of all the major cathedrals in England with every good intention of getting around to seeing all of them. I managed to check a few off the list since living here but I should probably put a bit more effort in to it. Especially now that it’s easier to get to other parts of the country now that I’m in London.

A few weekends ago I took the 45 minute-ish train ride from my house down to the Kent coast to have a look around Rochester. It has a Norman cathedral and castle, score!

The cathedral is the second oldest in England after Canterbury, though the nave is the oldest in the land; building work began on it in 1083.

Rochester Cathedral

You’ll have to forgive the quality of the external shots. Silly me forgot to charge my camera battery before heading out to take photos, d’oh!

Inside the cathedral is an interesting mix of styles. One end is very much a Norman cathedral and the other is gothic. Where the two meet up is pretty easy to spot:

Norman Arches, 1.5 Gothic Arches

There was a church on the site long before the Norman conquest, going back to 640, but it was in a poor state after invasions from the Mercians and the Danes (bloody Vikings!).

The first thing that struck me about the nave was the flat, wooden ceiling. Compared to other cathedrals (even Norman ones), the ceiling seems a bit plain. However, the dark wood does make it a bit striking.

Rochester Cathedral

I think the thing I liked the most about the place (after that sudden change in style) was the wall tiles in the choir and floor tiles in the apse.

Heraldic

Neat Tile Work

More Tiles

There was also a bit of a Medieval wall painting at the end of the choir. Would be interesting to know if there were paintings like this throughout the cathedral at some point.

Medieval Decor

One last thing I got a shot of before my camera konked out was of the Pilgrim Steps. The cathedral used to be a pilgrimage destination back when that was all the craze. The shrines and relics were so popular that offerings left at one of the tombs was able to fund the building of the choir and the completion of the cathedral. The stone steps leading up to the tombs are so worn out they are now covered with wooden planks.

The Pilgrim Steps

There’s a decent timeline of Rochester Cathedral at its official website. More of my photos of it and of Rochester in general are over on Flickr.

Highlight Reel: Lord Mayor’s Show 2010

I like tradition. So much so that I like keeping up a tradition that involves watching a tradition. Since I moved to England in 2007 I haven’t missed a Lord Mayor’s show. Despite it always being awful weather, I’m always there bright and early. And this year didn’t involve getting a train at some silly o’clock hour on a Saturday morning from Cambridge. No, it was a quick 15 minute jaunt on the train from home to Cannon Street for me this year. I could get used to this.

The Lord Mayor’s Show is one of the oldest civic traditions still going, dating back to the early 16th century. The post of Lord Mayor of London goes even further back to 1189.

Without dredging through too much back story that you could read on Wikipedia, the parade carries the new Lord Mayor from the Guildhall, to Mansion House, then onto a blessing at St. Paul’s before going to the Royal Courts of Justice to swear loyalty to the crown. After that the whole procession makes its way along the Victoria Embankment and back to the Mansion House to drop off the newly interned Lord Mayor.

This year I got a spot right by the Mansion House, the Lord Mayor’s residence at the Bank junction.  It’s a bit further away from the actual parade, but it gives a great view of the Lord Mayor’s coach as well as the City pikemen and musketeers meandering around waiting for their turn to accompany the coach once it sets off.

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The coach surrounded by pikemen just before leaving Mansion House.

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The Oresman in red. A traditional carry-over from when the procession was done on the river rather than the narrow crowded streets.

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This year was the first time I had a look at the procession’s return journey. I got to the Embankment just in time to get a great look at the coaches leaving the Royal Courts of Justice.

For loads more photos, head over to my Flickr.